ISSN : 1796-2056
Volume : 1    Issue : 1    Date : May 2006

Issues in the Usage of MANETs as Backup or Load-Balancing Transit Networks of the Internet
Quan Le Trung and Gabriele Kotsis
Page(s): 29-46
Full Text:
PDF (709 KB)

Internetworking the mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) with the Internet has been a hot issue for
many years. However, most researches have been concentrated on the use of MANETs as the
access networks for the Internet. This paper introduces another use of MANETs: backup or
load-balancing transit networks for the Internet. Although the MANETs capacity is currently low
compared with other backbone technologies, we argue that MANETs is a suitable alternative for
backup or load-balancing transit networks of the Internet based on its self-organized
infrastructure-less multi-hop architecture and its increasing capacity in the near future. To provide
the backup or load-balancing transit services for the Internet, a scalable, stable, lowoverhead,
QoS-support ad-hoc routing architecture with the address auto-configuration is required. Moreover,
how an Internet gateway selects an external route via MANETs to another autonomous system (AS)
also needs to be solved. In this paper, BGP-GCR+, a combination of the border gateway protocol
(BGP), the gravitational cluster routing (GCR), and the passive/weak IPv6-based address stateless
auto-configuration, is developed towards the standards to achieve the required functions.
We have implemented of the routing component of our proposed BGP-GCR+ routing architecture [1]
into ns-2 for the performance evaluation. Results show that the packet delivery ratio under high
traffic load and mobility in BGPGCR+ is lower than that in AODV-Hello for small-scale (50-150
nodes), but slightly higher for the medium-scale (200 nodes) MANETs. For lower mobility and traffic
load, the performance of both BGP-GCR+ and AODV-Hello are high (over 90%). Moreover, the
routing overhead is much lower (almost one-half) in BGP-GCR+ compared with AODV in all test
cases. The implementation of other components of BGP-GCR+ in ns-2 and the mapping of medium
access control (MAC)-related metrics into the link stability of the cluster construction in BGP-GCR+
for quality of service (QoS) support, their performance evaluations are subject to our future

Index Terms
MANETs, BGP, GCR, IPv6, BGP-GCR+, routing, address auto-configuration, transit networks