ISSN : 1796-2048
Volume : 2    Issue : 2    Date : April 2007

Universal Detection of JPEG Steganography
Johann Barbier, Éric Filiol, and Kichenakoumar Mayoura
Page(s): 1-9
Full Text:
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In this paper, we present a novel universal approach which consists in exploring statistics in the
compressed frequency domain. This approach is motivated by two main characteristics of the
lossless compression step of the JPEG format. First, this step can be considered as a bijective
mapping and then, when only few bits are flipped at its input, half the bits are flipped at the output.
These properties, combined with a binary entropy deviation we pointed out, enable the design of
detection schemes which the efficiencies are constant and do not depend in practice on the amount
of information that has been embedded. These characteristics define a new class of promising
functions for steganalysis. We illustrate our technique by considering RLE plus Huffman as such a
function and design a new efficient universal steganalytic scheme to blindly detect the use of
Outguess, F5 and JPHide and JPseek. Experimental results show that our steganalysis scheme is
able to efficiently detect the use of new algorithms which are not used during the training step, even
if the embedding rate is very low (≈ 10E-6). As expected, the accuracy of our detector is independent
of the payload.

Index Terms
universal steganalysis, JPEG, Kullbak-Leibler distance, Fisher discriminant.