JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS (JCP)
ISSN : 1796-203X
Volume : 1    Issue : 2    Date : May 2006

Simulated Annealing based Wireless Sensor Network Localization
Anushiya A Kannan, Guoqiang Mao and Branka Vucetic
Page(s): 15-22
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Abstract
In this paper, we describe a novel localization algorithm for ad hoc wireless sensor networks.
Accurate selforganization and localization capability is a highly desirable characteristic of wireless
sensor networks. Many researchers have approached the localization problem from different
perspectives. A major problem in wireless sensor network localization is the flip ambiguity, which
introduces large errors in the location estimates. In this paper, we propose a two phase localization
method based on the simulated annealing technique to address the issue. Simulated annealing
is a technique for combinatorial optimization problems and unlike the gradient search method, it is
robust against being trapped into local minima. In this paper we show that our simulated annealing
based localization method can be used in ad hoc wireless sensor networks to estimate the location
of nodes accurately. In the first phase of our algorithm, simulated annealing is used to obtain an
accurate estimate of location. Then a second phase of optimization is performed only on those
nodes that are likely to have flip ambiguity problem. Based on the neighborhood information of
nodes, those nodes likely to have been affected by flip ambiguity are identified and moved to the
correct position. The proposed scheme is tested using simulation on a sensor network of 200
nodes whose distance measurements are corrupted by Gaussian noise. Simulation results show
that the proposed novel scheme gives accurate and consistent location estimates of the nodes, and
mitigate errors due to flip ambiguity. The performance of the proposed algorithm is better than the
performance of some well-known schemes such as DVhop method and convex optimization based
semi-definite programming method.

Index Terms
wireless sensor network, localization, flip ambiguity, simulated annealing