ISSN : 1796-2021
Volume : 1    Issue : 1    Date : April 2006

Enabling Secondary Spectrum Markets Using Ad Hoc and Mesh Networking Protocols
John A. Stine
Page(s): 26-37
Full Text:
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Spectrum management is the process of deciding how radio frequency (RF) spectrum may be used
in a geographical region and who may use it. Traditionally, spectrum management has been
executed as an administrative and political process with the intent of making lasting decisions. Its
lack of responsiveness and resolution causes much spectrum to lay fallow since most users rarely
need spectrum continuously and ubiquitously. In this paper, we propose an alternative spectrum
management approach that enables management at a greater temporal and spatial resolution
using networks and wireless ad hoc and mesh networking technologies. Three different spectrum
management ideas are described. The Synchronous Collision Resolution (SCR) MAC protocol
enables a strict arbitration of spectrum access based on spectrum rights thus enabling a hierarchy
of networks in the same spectrum that always guarantees the primary rights holder precedence.
Second, it autonomously manages the use of an arbitrary number of channels in the same network.
The third and most exciting idea is a new fast command and control model for spectrum
management. An underlying ad hoc network built using the Nodes State Routing* (NSR) protocol is
used to track and manage the use of spectrum of attached RF emitters. NSR tracks the state of the
network by collecting and disseminating the states of the nodes. These states can include relevant
information on the spectrum these nodes are using and are observing others use. Thus the
network supports tracking and monitoring spectrum use spatially in near real time. Spectrum
management utilities built on top of the network could allow users and spectrum managers to
rapidly negotiate the use of spectrum and assist spectrum managers in identifying unused
spectrum and emitters causing harmful interference. We conclude with proposed standardization
and regulatory changes to make this feasible.

Index Terms
spectrum management, ad hoc networking, MANET, synchronous collision resolution, SCR, node
state routing, NSR, fast command and control model, FCCM